What is a Database? Database Programs and Management

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In today’s world, where information technologies have reached an incredible level, data storage is at least as important as data transfer. Because keeping data in any digital system, online and offline, is considered the first step of data sharing that ensures the flow of the network society. Therefore, the concept of a database is one of the most valuable elements concerning all activities of the 21st century.

In modern societies, where the information bombardment continues uninterrupted, it was a very dreamy approach to store large masses of data with the traditional file-operating system method. The necessity of using different query languages ​​effectively led to the emergence of the database creation process in various fields. In this context, making data processing and querying more efficient is considered one of the basic functions of database types.

Before examining the definition and functions of the database concept in detail, it is necessary to express at what points the related concept differs from the spreadsheets. Database and spreadsheets, which are suitable methods for storing information, have significant differences in terms of data collection method, manipulation method, people who can access the data, and the amount of data to be stored.

For example, spreadsheets are not capable of high levels of data manipulation and multi-user access, while databases are a great option for maintaining large collections of data. In addition, databases allow multiple users to access at the same time using a very complex language and logic.

What is a Database?
A database is defined as an organized collection of data stored in an electronic computer system and structured according to certain criteria. Databases are usually controlled by a Database management system. Because it is very important for the efficiency of the structure that the processing and querying of the data proceed in a systematic structure. These control mechanisms are often referred to as database systems.

Common database types used in digital operations are modeled on rows and columns in a series of tables to make data processing and querying more efficient. In this way, any data becomes much easier to access, manage, change, control, update and organize. Structured query language ( SQL ) is preferred for these operations in most databases.

Database History
Databases that emerged in the early 1960s experienced a rapid and radical change process. The hierarchical navigational databases and the network database model were the first unique systems used to both store and manipulate data. After these flexible databases, relational databases became popular in the 1980s. 10 years later, object-oriented databases took their place in the market.

In the 21st century, with the contribution of the enormous growth of the internet, the need for faster processing and querying of unstructured data has increased. NoSQL databases were created to meet the increasing need. Today, fully online cloud databases and self-managed databases offer a groundbreaking experience in many ways.

Most Used Databases
There are many databases on the market that are preferred by various institutions for different purposes. The databases, which are separated from each other by being open source, free of charge, high-capacity data volume, and differences in operating system support, manage to provide solutions to very important needs. Among the systems that users frequently turn to, MySQL, MsSQL, Oracle, and SQLite databases draw attention.

PostgreSQL: PostgreSQL is an open-source, relational database management system that offers good performance and is advanced in terms of security. The biggest advantages of the structure that supports rich data types can be stated as being free and independent of platforms.
Oracle: This database allows you to make the arrangements you need with ready applications. Oracle, which is used in web-based software and eliminates the need for extra application installation, is shared with users in different standards. The features included in the package contents determine the price ranges.
Microsoft Access: Working with a relational database management system and creating a database, Microsoft Access allows you to use all the advantages of the graphical user interface of the Windows environment. Access can facilitate the creation of many related or unrelated databases.

Berkeley DB: Berkeley DB, a high-performance embedded data library, can be used with many different programming languages. The system makes it possible for thousands of data snippets running simultaneously to access a 256 TB database.
SQLite: It is easily used in dozens of programming languages. SQLite can be defined as both a transactional and a relational SQL database engine, the source code of which is publicly available and developed entirely in C/C++ programming languages, with no server software and no configuration requirements.

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